哲學大綱

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这篇大纲是哲学的总览和引导。

哲学是研究关于如存在、价值、理性、心灵、语言的普遍和基础的学问。[1][2]它不同于别的研究这种基础性问题的东西(如神秘主義迷思宗教),因为它具有批判性,有系统的研究方法,而且依赖理性论证[3]它包含了对语言的逻辑分析,对词语和概念的意义的澄清,是一套观念,关于生命和宇宙的信念,而这些恰恰是我们常常不假思索地相信着的。“哲学”一词,来自希腊语“菲罗索非亚”(φιλοσοφία),字面意义是“爱智慧”。[4][5][6]


哲学领域[编辑]

哲学的不同分支,被分进了哲学的不同领域:

美学[编辑]

美学英语Outline of aesthetics研究美、艺术、品味,以及对个人性事实的创造,请参阅美学

知识论[编辑]

知识论英语Outline of epistemology研究知识的来源、本质和有效性。知识论关切这些问题:

  1. 知识与信念有什么不同?
  2. 我们能够知道什么?
  3. 知识从哪里来?
  4. 有客观的知识吗?

伦理学[编辑]

Ethics英语Outline of ethics – 研究对错、善恶、好坏。

  • 應用倫理學 – 对一些个人或社会生活中有关道德判断的特殊问题,从道德的立场,进行哲学的审视。因此它尝试使用哲学方法。在人类生活的很多方面,去辨认道德上正确的行为。
  • 描述倫理學 – 研究人关于道德性的信念。
  • 規範倫理學 – 规范人们应该怎么行动,是它的研究对象。
  • 元伦理学 – 寻求理解伦理学性质、陈述、态度、判断的本质。

逻辑学[编辑]

逻辑学英语Outline of logic – 系统研究有效推理和理性的学问,参见逻辑学

Metaphysics[编辑]

形而上学 – 尝试回答:根本上有什么存在?是什么样的?参见形而上学

其他[编辑]

哲学史[编辑]

关于哲学本身的历史。

古代哲学[编辑]

西方哲学[编辑]


东方哲学[编辑]

当代哲学[编辑]

哲学理论[编辑]

主要流派[编辑]

哲学的运动[编辑]

哲学运动英语Philosophical movement

古代[编辑]

中世纪[编辑]

近现代[编辑]

哲学分支[编辑]

美学[编辑]

美学

知识论[编辑]

知识论

Ethics[编辑]

伦理学

逻辑[编辑]

逻辑

形上学[编辑]

形上學

政治哲学[编辑]

政治哲学

语言哲学[编辑]

语言哲学

心灵哲学[编辑]

心灵哲学

宗教哲学[编辑]

宗教哲学

宗教哲学[编辑]

科学哲学[编辑]

科学哲学

哲学文学[编辑]

参考作品[编辑]

  • Encyclopedia of Philosophy英语Encyclopedia of Philosophy – one of the major English encyclopedias of philosophy. The second edition, edited by Donald M. Borchert, was published in ten volumes in 2006 by Thomson Gale. Volumes 1–9 contain alphabetically ordered articles.
  • Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy英语Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy – free online encyclopedia on philosophical topics and philosophers founded by James Fieser in 1995. The current general editors are James Fieser (Professor of Philosophy at the University of Tennessee at Martin) and Bradley Dowden (Professor of Philosophy at California State University, Sacramento). The staff also includes numerous area editors as well as volunteers.
  • Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy英语Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy – encyclopedia of philosophy edited by Edward Craig that was first published by Routledge in 1998 (ISBN 978-0415073103). Originally published in both 10 volumes of print and as a CD-ROM, in 2002 it was made available online on a subscription basis. The online version is regularly updated with new articles and revisions to existing articles. It has 1,300 contributors providing over 2,000 scholarly articles.
  • 史丹佛哲學百科全書 – 同行审查,原创论文,互联网用户免费阅读。每篇文章都是此领域的专家所作。

哲学家[编辑]

哲學家列表

参见[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ Jenny Teichmann and Katherine C. Evans, Philosophy: A Beginner's Guide (Blackwell Publishing, 1999), p. 1: "Philosophy is a study of problems which are ultimate, abstract and very general. These problems are concerned with the nature of existence, knowledge, morality, reason and human purpose."
  2. ^ A.C. Grayling英语A.C. Grayling, Philosophy 1: A Guide through the Subject (Oxford University Press, 1998), p. 1: "The aim of philosophical inquiry is to gain insight into questions about knowledge, truth, reason, reality, meaning, mind, and value."
  3. ^ Anthony Quinton, in T. Honderich (ed.), The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 666: "Philosophy is rationally critical thinking, of a more or less systematic kind about the general nature of the world (metaphysics or theory of existence), the justification of belief (epistemology or theory of knowledge), and the conduct of life (ethics or theory of value). Each of the three elements in this list has a non-philosophical counterpart, from which it is distinguished by its explicitly rational and critical way of proceeding and by its systematic nature. Everyone has some general conception of the nature of the world in which they live and of their place in it. Metaphysics replaces the unargued assumptions embodied in such a conception with a rational and organized body of beliefs about the world as a whole. Everyone has occasion to doubt and question beliefs, their own or those of others, with more or less success and without any theory of what they are doing. Epistemology seeks by argument to make explicit the rules of correct belief formation. Everyone governs their conduct by directing it to desired or valued ends. Ethics, or moral philosophy, in its most inclusive sense, seeks to articulate, in rationally systematic form, the rules or principles involved."
  4. ^ Philosophia, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
  5. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary
  6. ^ The definition of philosophy is: "1.orig., love of, or the search for, wisdom or knowledge 2.theory or logical analysis of the principles underlying conduct, thought, knowledge, and the nature of the universe". Webster's New World Dictionary Second College. 

外部链接[编辑]

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