法 (佛教)

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梵語धर्मdharma巴利語धम्मdhamma),可直译为万法轨则[1]等,音譯為曇無昙摩(省稱)、䭾摩[2]達磨達摩達麼,佛教術語,指佛教對世間、出世間的所有義理與修證的開示。世间所有事物和现象称爲世间法有为法,与之相对的是出世间法无为法。所有法的集合一切法

概論[编辑]

源自古印度哲學,即是在佛典上用例極多且語意不一。主要有:

  1. 任持自性—保持自體的自性(各自的本性)不改變,依此解法指具有自性的一切存在[3]
  2. 軌生物解—規範人倫,令人產生對一定事物理解之根據,依此解法指認識之標準、規範、法則等。
  3. 六境中法是指對應第六種感官意識的對境,六境指眼耳鼻舌身意,其對境為色聲香味觸法。
  4. 因明用語,性質屬性之意。
  5. 釋迦牟尼的教法,即三寶中的正法

佛門的加行、正行、結行,圓滿的修持就叫佛法。

語源[编辑]

法的梵文字根來自dha-,意思為持、保持、任持不失,印順法師在《初期大乘佛教之起源與發展》說:「法——達磨dharma,是眾生的歸依處,是引導人類趣向的理想與目標。自覺自證的內容,不是一般所能說明的、思辯的,而要從實行中去體現的。為了化導眾生,不能沒有名字,釋尊就用印度固有的術語──達磨來代表。」在早期佛教中,意指八聖道,因為是一切聖者所必經的,是通往解脫的不二聖道,不變不失,所以稱之為法。

文字寫法[编辑]

古典梵語,法的拼法是dharma,而在普拉克里特諸語言(古印度俗語)和巴利語中則拼作dhamma阿育王詔書的古石刻文書中,其婆羅米體寫為𑀥𑀁𑀫(dhaṃma),佉盧體(從右往左)寫作𐨢𐨿𐨪𐨨(dhrama),並在坎達哈雙語岩石銘文英语Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription將之譯為古希臘語eusebeia英语Eusebeia(εὐσέβεια,虔誠、靈性的成熟、恭敬神明)和亞蘭語qšyṭʾ(קשיטא,真理、真實)[4][5]。佛教傳至中國後,漢語音譯為曇無、曇摩、達磨、達摩、達麼,對譯為「法」。藏語對譯為ཆོས(威利轉寫:chos)。

参见[编辑]

註釋[编辑]

  1. ^ 佛光教科书[永久失效連結]》:法,梵语「达磨」,意译为「轨则」。法的定义很多,广义而言,泛指宇宙万有,亦即世间的森罗万象,大到高山海洋,小到微尘砂粒,乃至我人的精神、思想、观念、见解等,都称为「法」。所以,一朵花、一颗树,一桌一椅、一人一事,乃至一个念头等,都称之为「法」。本课所讲的是三宝中的法宝──「佛法」。
  2. ^ 《大智度論》:「若聞䭾(馱)字,即知一切法中法性不可得。䭾摩,秦言法。」
  3. ^ 《佛學大辭典》【法】:(術語)法者梵云達磨Dharma,為通於一切之語。小者大者,有形者,無形者,真實者,虛妄者,事物其物者,道理其物者,皆悉為法也。唯識論以自體任持與軌生物解二義解法。自體任持者,謂竹有竹之自體,梅有梅之自體,有形者,有形之自體,無形者,有無形之自體,各保任維持其自體也。軌生物解者,謂如是既各有自體,皆為自體任持之狀,然只限於有體,不能容無體,法者,兼攝無體,該盡一切也。唯識論一曰:「法謂軌持。」同述記一本曰:「法謂軌持,軌謂軌範。可生物解,持謂任持,不捨自相。」俱舍論光記一曰:「釋法名有二:一能持自性,謂一切法各守自性,如色等性常不改變。二軌生勝解,如無常等生人無常等解。」大乘義章十曰:「法者,外國正音名為達磨,亦名曇無。本是一音,傳之別耳。此翻名法,法義不同。汎釋有二:一自體為法,二者軌則名法。」唯識述記二末曰:「法者,道理義也。有般涅槃之義,名般涅槃法。」
  4. ^ How did the 'Ramayana' and 'Mahabharata' come to be (and what has 'dharma' got to do with it)?. [2021-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2018-12-16). 
  5. ^ Hiltebeitel, Alf. Dharma: Its Early History in Law, Religion, and Narrative. Oxford University Press, USA. 2011: 36–37. ISBN 978-0-19-539423-8 (英语). 
  6. ^ Ṛgveda(Rigveda) - The Veda. [2021-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-26). 
  7. ^ 𑀥𑀁𑀫. wiktionary. [2021-05-18]. (原始内容存档于2021-04-15). 
  8. ^ * Inscriptions of Asoka. New Edition by E. Hultzsch. 1925: 56–57 (Sanskrit). 
  9. ^ Mon - Aksharamukha. [2021-05-27]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-27). 
  10. ^ * Ahom - Aksharamukha. [2021-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-26). 
  11. ^ Tai Tham Ad-hoc Meeting Report (PDF). [2021-06-14]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2020-10-09). 
  12. ^ Denise Cush; Michael York; Catherine Robinson. Encyclopedia of Hinduism. 2012: 455 [2021-06-14]. (原始内容存档于2021-06-14). For instance, if we find Hindi speakers talking of dharm, Bengalis of dhormo, and Tamils of tharumam, it is useful to know that these are all tatsama forms of the same Sanskrit word dharma. 
  13. ^
  14. ^ * 義淨. 梵語千字文 (東京東洋文庫本). [2021-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-18). 
  15. ^ * Anshuman Pandey. Final proposal to encode Nandinagari in Unicode (PDF). [2021-05-28]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2021-01-21). 
  16. ^ Shriramana Sharma. Proposal to encode characters for Extended Tamil (PDF). [2021-06-10]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2021-06-10). 
  17. ^ Dieter Maue. Non-Indian Brāhmī scripts along the Silk Roads. 2010 [2021-06-04]. (原始内容存档于2021-06-04). 
  18. ^ * Bali lontar - Palm Leaf Wiki. [2021-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2021-03-05). 
  19. ^ Javanese character notes - r12a. [2021-05-27]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-27). 
  20. ^ 吳昭新. 新編台灣閩南語用字彙編 (PDF). [2021-06-17]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2021-05-05). 達:tat8 ……無、麼、摩、磨:moo5 
  21. ^ ta̍t 的發音: môo 的發音:
  22. ^ * Georgios T. Halkias. When the Greeks Converted the Buddha: Asymmetrical Transfers of Knowledge in Indo-Greek Cultures. [2021-06-07]. (原始内容存档于2021-06-07). Greco-Bactrian inscription at Jaḡatu, afghanistan, of the sanskrit refuge formula to the “three-jewels” 
  23. ^ Budhist Terminology in Sogdian (PDF). 
  24. ^ Georgios T. Halkias. When the Greeks Converted the Buddha: Asymmetrical Transfers of Knowledge in Indo-Greek Cultures. 2014 [2021-06-02]. (原始内容存档于2019-06-07). In later bilingual Indian-Greek coins, dharma is equated with the Greek word dikē (δίκη), right or justice and is not restricted to eusebeia (εὐσέβεια). 
  25. ^ * UNESCO Staff. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. 1994: 400 [2021-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-26). 
  26. ^ Michaël Peyrot. Points of Tocharian Agramma (PDF). [2021-06-04]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2021-06-04). 
  27. ^ Tocharian word of the week: "dharma". 
  28. ^ Mauro Maggi. A folio of the Ratnakūṭa (Kāśyapaparivarta) in Khotanese. 法鼓佛學學報. 2015 [2021-06-05]. (原始内容存档于2021-06-06). 
  29. ^ The Turkic Peoples of Central Asia and Buddhism. [2021-06-04]. (原始内容存档于2021-06-04). Tremblay made the point that both the Uyghur and the Manichaean Sogdian terms were independently copied from spoken Buddhist Sogdian. The frequent usage of nwm for Skt. dharma instead of the Buddhist Sogdian loanword δrm in Uyghur Buddhist texts would point in the same direction: nwm 
  30. ^ * Peter Zieme. The first leaf of an Old Uyghur 觀無量壽經 Guanwuliangshoujing translation. Written Monuments of the Orient. 2020 [2021-06-05]. (原始内容存档于2021-06-05). 
  31. ^ Edited by Khulan D. English-Mongolian Buddhist Glossary. [2021-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-26). 
  32. ^ 莊吉發. 國立故宮博物院典藏《大藏經》滿文譯本研究. 東方宗教研究. 1990 [2021-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2021-02-27). 「法輪」,滿文譯作"nomun i kurdun"……「而為沙門,受佛法者」,滿文譯作"fucihi i nomun be aliha sarmana" ,意即「受佛法之沙門」 
  33. ^ 西夏文 - 古今文字集成. [2021-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-21). 
  34. ^ * Heleen Plaisier. 3. Unravelling Lepcha manuscripts. [2021-06-02]. (原始内容存档于2021-06-28). In the titles of Lepcha works......cho (book, learning)......These designations are obviously direct loans from equivalent categories in Tibetan literature......Chos......Indeed, a Lepcha book, referred to as cho, typically conveys a canonical message 
  35. ^ * 臺灣閩南語常用詞辭典 - 法. [2021-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-26). 
  36. ^ David Wharton. Language, Orthography and Buddhist Manuscript Culture of the Tai Nuea – An Apocryphal Jātaka Text in Mueang Sing, Laos. University of Passau. 2018: 240 [2021-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2021-02-04). 
  37. ^ Stephen Morey. Ahom and Tangsa: Case studies of language maintenance and loss in North East India (PDF). Language Documentation & Conservation. 2014, 7 [2021-06-20]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2017-11-14). 
  38. ^ Marseille, Carmen Eva. Shan-Ni grammar and processes of linguistic change. 2019: 34 [2021-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-26). 
  39. ^ 39.0 39.1 * d'Hubert, Thibaut. A Persian Account of the Religious Customs of the Magh (Arakanese) from Early Colonial Bengal. Iranian Studies. 2018 [2021-06-03]. (原始内容存档于2021-06-03). By the blessing of Tārā (i.e Dharma)......The term tārā transcribes the Arakanese/Burmese tarāḥ, which may be translated as "precept"or "law". This is the same term used by the Chakmas to designate the ritual texts called Āgar tārā, that the Luris used to recite on various occasions. 
  40. ^ Vinodh Rajan. Aksharamukha : Script Converter. [2021-06-01]. (原始内容存档于2021-07-05). 
  41. ^ polyhedron. 做了一個滿文阿禮嘎禮的輸入法. [2021-05-31]. (原始内容存档于2021-06-03).