^Simon, J.L.; Bretagnon, P.; Chapront, J.; Chapront-Touzé, M.; Francou, G.; Laskar, J. Numerical expressions for precession formulae and mean elements for the Moon and planets. Astronomy and Astrophysics. February 1994, 282 (2): 663–683. Bibcode:1994A&A...282..663S.
^Jean Meeus, Astronomical Formulæ for Calculators. (Richmond, VA: Willmann-Bell, 1988) 99. Elements by F. E. Ross
^In ephemeris days of 86 400 seconds. The sidereal and anomalistic years are 686.980 days and 686.996 days long, respectively. (About a 20 minute difference). The sidereal year is the time taken to revolve around the Sun relative to a fixed reference frame. More precisely, the sidereal year is one way to express the rate of change of the mean longitude at one instant, with respect to a fixed equinox. The calculation shows how long it would take for the longitude to change 360 degrees at the given rate.
The anomalistic year is the time span between successive perihelion or aphelion passages. This may be calculated in the same manner as the sidereal year, but the mean anomaly is used.
^Jean Meeus, Astronomical Algorithms (Richmond, VA: Willmann-Bell, 1998) 238. The formula by Ramanujan is accurate enough.