^ 3.03.13.2The letters ⟨q⟩, ⟨x⟩, and ⟨y⟩ occur mostly in loanwords, but they may also appear in words and names that reflect older spelling conventions. ⟨Q⟩ is almost always followed by ⟨u⟩ (that is, ⟨qu⟩) because nearly every word with a ⟨qu⟩ is borrowed from French or Latin.
^Normally, ⟨y⟩ is generally called /ɛɪ/. However, when it is used in common speech and/or the need arises to distinguish the letter from ⟨ij⟩, it is most often referred to as Griekse ij (sometimes written ⟨Griekse Y⟩ （页面存档备份，存于互联网档案馆）)('Greek Y'); i-grec, a French word having a similar meaning; or ypsilon.
^The digraph IJ behaves like a separate letter for capitalisation. In alphabetical order, IJ may not be distinguished from with Y (usual for telephone directories), or it may come between ii and ik (which is common in dictionaries). In Dutch primary education the (more common) digraph IJ often replaces the (less common) Y as the 25th letter of the alphabet.