英錢

維基百科,自由的百科全書
跳至導覽 跳至搜尋

英錢(英語:pennyweight,縮寫:dwt),或譯為本尼威特便士重,英美重量單位,等於24格令120金衡盎司1240金衡磅,約等於0.054857常衡盎司[1]或1.55517384 [2]

歷史[編輯]

在中世紀,一個英國便士英語Penny (British pre-decimal coin)的重量是相差無幾的,在貨幣方面,1便士等於120盎司或1240標準純銀英語sterling silver磅。當時所用的磅是塔磅。中世紀的英國便士等於32塔衡格令(也稱麥格令)。1527年,金衡制代替塔衡制,在金衡制中,舊的塔衡磅等於5400金衡格令(也稱巴利肯/大麥粒),塔衡英錢為2212金衡格令,約等於1.46克。1527年後,英錢改用金衡制英錢。[3]

應用[編輯]

在1878年的《重量及計量條例英語Weights and Measures Act》中,金衡磅和英錢已失去了在英國的法定單位地位;僅金衡盎司及其十進制輔助單位仍具法定地位。金衡盎司在英國享有特殊的免除米制化英語Metrication的法律地位。[4]

英錢是貴金屬估值和測量時的常見單位。珠寶商利用英錢來計算在製作珠寶時貴金屬的使用量和成本。同時,牙醫和牙科實驗室也仍使用英錢來計量牙套和牙齒鑲補所用的貴金屬。[5]

英錢最常見的縮寫是「dwt」,其中「d」源自羅馬的迪納厄斯(denarius),「d」在英國貨幣制度改為十進制之前是便士的縮寫。英錢的其他縮寫還有「pwt」和「PW」。

記重之外的用途[編輯]

儘管縮寫相同,但本尼威特與便士釘的實際重量無關,而是指一百根釘子的價格。[6][7][8][9]

英錢與現行的便士硬幣的重量也沒有關係,如1982年後鑄造的美國便士(一般稱「美分」)每枚重達2.5g。[10]

換算[編輯]

單位 格令 英錢 盎司(金衡制) 磅(金衡制)
1 英錢 = 24 gr 1 dwt 120 oz 1240lb 1.55517384g

參考[編輯]

  1. ^ 換算關係:
    1 常衡盎司 = 437.5 格令
    1 金衡盎司 = 480 格令
  2. ^ 換算關係:
    1 金衡格令 = 0.06479891 克 (精確定義)
  3. ^ Zupko, Ronald Edward. A dictionary of weights and measures for the British Isles. American Philosophical Society. 1985: 280–84. ISBN 978-0-87169-168-2. 
  4. ^ Weights and Measures Act 1985. 2011-08-30 [2011-09-22]. Part II Weighing and Measuring for Trade ... 8 Units of measurement, weights and measures lawful for use for trade ... (2) No person shall use for trade—(a) the ounce troy, except for the purposes of transactions in, or in articles made from, gold, silver or other precious metals, including transactions in gold or silver thread, lace or fringe... 
  5. ^ Precious Metal Buyers, Gold Refiners, Gold Assayers, Waste Management. Precious metals calculator. Maguire & Strickland Refining. 2011-09-22 [2011-09-22]. This section is for those in the trade. Those in the trade include jewelers, dentists and dental laboratories who have a store front, State ID numbers and Federal ID numbers ... We do not list a dental estimating factor as there is no standard gold percentage for dental solids 
  6. ^ Penny (subscription required). Oxford English Dictionary 2nd. [2010-05-30]. Applied to nails, such adjectives denote the original price (in 15th c.) per hundred; as fivepenny nail, a nail which cost 5d. a hundred, tenpenny nail, a nail costing 10d. a hundred. (These names persisted after the prices fell, as they began to do in some places before 1500, and they were eventually used to designate sizes of nails.) [永久失效連結]
  7. ^ H. Littlehales. Medieval Rec. London City Church. 1905Cited in the Oxford English Dictionary under "Penny" with a quote from 1426-1427. 
  8. ^ Penny. sizes.com. [2010-01-10]. 
  9. ^ Norman Scott Brien Gras. The Early English Customs System. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (MA). 1918: 701.  Cited at sizes.com with a quote from 1507.
  10. ^ Coin Specifications (table). About us. 美國鑄幣局. September 22 [September 22, 2011]. (原始內容存檔於2009-11-11). The following table gives specifications for The United States Mint legal tender coins presently in circulation